Community-level Data

This documentation page contains information about each community-level data file currently available for analysis. Information including data collection date, methods, sample characteristics, reporting period, and topics measured is provided for each data file. Research published using the data are listed here, with links to the full citation. Codebooks, questionnaires, and instruments can be downloaded from this page. A link to where the data file is archived and availability of online analysis is also provided.

Healthpost History, Restricted-Use - DS8

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/ Instruments Archive Analysis online
1995
  • Face-to-face interview, regional and local health service records
  • Semi-structured health service history calendar and structured questionnaire used during semi-structured interviews
  • Professional interviewers
  • Paper and pencil “Health Service History Calendar” instrument and accompanying questionnaire
  • N = 116
  • Response rate = 100%
  • Every health service (hospitals, clinics, dispensaries, and pharmacies) ever operated in western Chitwan
1953-1997 History of all health services including: years operation, days of service per week, hours of service per day, number of staff, number of rooms and related facilities, contraceptive methods available, costs of contraceptive methods, association with mobile sterilization camps, other family planning programs/services offered, maternal and child health programs/services offered
  • Axinn et al. 1997 (“The Neighborhood History Calendar”)
  • Brauner-Otto. 2015
  • Brauner-Otto et al. 2007
(PDF) (PDF) ICPSR 4538 Not available

Time 2, Health Post History, Restricted-Use - DS24

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/ Instruments Archive Analysis online
2005
  • Face-to-face interview, regional and local health service records
  • Semi-structured health service history calendar used to guide semi-structured interviews. An accompanying questionnaire was not used in the T2 Health Post History Survey
  • Professional interviewers
  • Paper and pencil “Health Service History Calendar” instrument
  • N = 212
  • Response rate = 96.8%
  • Every health service (hospitals, clinics, dispensaries, and pharmacies) ever operated in western Chitwan
1995-2005 Same measures as Health Post History Time 1 (DS8) plus: more detailed information about patient exam services available each day, number of ambulances and health check up rooms, more detailed information about staff; and more detailed information about the types of services offered
  • Axinn et al. 1997 (“The Neighborhood History Calendar”)
  • Brauner-Otto. 2015
  • Brauner-Otto et al. 2007
(PDF) (PDF) ICPSR 4358 Not available

School History, Restricted-Use - DS17

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/ Instruments Archive Analysis online
1995
  • Face-to-face interview, regional and local school records
  • Semi-structured school history calendar and structured questionnaire used during semi-structured interviews
  • Professional interviewers
  • Paper and pencil “School History Calendar” instrument and accompanying questionnaire
  • N = 145
  • Response rate = 100%
  • Every school ever opened in western Chitwan
1954-1994 History of all schools including: location, date school opened and description of how it opened, public or private status, highest and lowest grades of instruction offered, number of classrooms, number of teachers, number of female teachers, number of students, tuition and fees for grades 1 and 10, type of general curriculum, language of instruction, inclusion of family planning in curriculum, number of female students in hostel, number of teachers with bachelor’s degree or higher
  • Axinn et al. 1997 (“The Neighborhood History Calendar”)
  • Brauner-Otto. 2012
  • Brauner-Otto. 2009
(PDF) (PDF) ICPSR 4538 Not available

Time 2, School History, Restricted-Use - DS23

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/ Instruments Archive Analysis online
2006
  • Face-to-face interview, regional and local school records
  • Semi-structured school history calendar used to guide semi-structured interviews. An accompanying questionnaire was not used in the T2 School History Survey
  • Professional interviewers
  • Paper and pencil “School History Calendar” instrument
  • N = 155
  • Response rate = 99.4%
  • Every school ever opened in western Chitwan
1995-2005 Same measures as School History Time 1 (DS17) plus: whether school has pre-primary classes, number of students and number of female students in pre-primary class, whether school has day care, number of pre-primary instructors; number of indigenous and female indigenous students; number of low caste Hindu and low caste Hindu female students enrolled, number of students eligible to take and number who pass the SLC exam; whether school has morning assembly, computer education, health classes, and population and environment classes; number of administrative staff; whether building is permanent or temporary; number of classrooms; number of offices; number of library rooms
  • Axinn et al. 1997 (“The Neighborhood History Calendar”)
  • Brauner-Otto. 2012
(PDF) (PDF) ICPSR 4538 Not available

Neighborhood History, Restricted-Use - DS14

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/ Instruments Archive Analysis online
1995
  • Face-to-face interview, archival records
  • Semi-structured neighborhood history calendar and structured questionnaires used during semi-structured interview, mixed individual and group interviews
  • Professional interviewers
  • Paper and pencil “Neighborhood History Calendar” instrument and accompanying questionnaire
  • N = 171
  • Response rate = 100%
  • Random sample of neighborhoods in the Chitwan Valley of Nepal stratified by distance to Narayanghat
1953-1996 Access to electricity, schools, health services, bus services, grain mills, agricultural cooperatives, dairies, markets, banks, employment opportunities, small farmers’ development programs, women’s groups, youth groups, temples, and police stations in each neighborhood
  • Axinn and Ghimire. 2011
  • Axinn et al. 2010
  • Axinn and Barber. 2003
  • Axinn and Barber. 2001
  • Axinn and Yabiku. 2001
  • Axinn et al. 1997 (“The Neighborhood History Calendar”)
  • Barber. 2004
  • Barber et al. 2003 (“Neighborhood Social Change”)
  • Barber et al. 2000
  • Barber et al. 1997
  • Ghimire and Axinn. 2010
  • Hoelter et al. 2004
  • Link et al. 2012
  • Maples et al. 2002
  • Massey et al. 2010 (“Community Services”)
  • Williams. 2013
  • Williams. 2009
  • Yabiku and Schlabach. 2009
  • Yabiku, Scott T. 2006 (“Neighbors and Neighborhoods”)
  • Yabiku, Scott T. 2004
(PDF) (PDF) ICPSR 4538 Not available

Time 2, Neighborhood History, Restricted-Use - DS22

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/ Instruments Archive Analysis online
2004
  • Face-to face interview
  • Semi-structured neighborhood history calendar and structured questionnaires used during semi-structured interview, mixed individual and group interviews
  • Professional interviewers
  • Paper and pencil “Neighborhood History Calendar” instrument and accompanying questionnaire
  • N = 171
  • Response rate = 100%
  • Random sample of neighborhoods in the Chitwan Valley of Nepal stratified by distance to Narayanghat
1996-2004 Same measures as Neighborhood History Time 1 (DS14) plus accessibility of: agrovet services, movie theaters, video shops, cable, telephone services, internet and e-mail, postal and exdel services, computer training, language training, saw mills, poultry farms, concrete block factories, bike maintenance services, motor bike and motor maintenance services, proximity of tourist hotels, and access to temples, monasteries, mosques, and churches Axinn et al. 1997 (“The Neighborhood History Calendar”) (PDF) (PDF) ICPSR 4538 Not available

Time 1, 2, and 3 Neighborhood History Data, Restricted-Use - DS36

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/Instruments Archive Analysis online
  • Time 1: 1995
  • Time 2: 2004
  • Time 3: 2015
  • Face-to face interview
  • Semi-structured neighborhood history calendar and structured questionnaires used during semi-structured interview, mixed individual and group interviews
  • Professional interviewers
  • Paper and pencil
  • Neighborhood History Calendar” instrument and accompanying questionnaire
  • N = 171
  • Response rate = 100%
  • Random sample of neighborhoods in the Chitwan Valley of Nepal stratified by distance to Narayanghat
1996-2014 Access to electricity, schools, health services, bus services, grain mills, ambulance services, agricultural cooperatives, dairies, markets, banks, employment opportunities, agrovet services, movie theaters, video shops, mobile shops, cable, telephone services, internet and e-mail, postal and exdel services, computer training, language training, saw mills, poultry farms, money transfer service, concrete block factories, bike maintenance services, motor bike and motor maintenance services; proximity of tourist hotels; access to temples, monasteries, mosques, and churches; small farmers’ development programs, women’s groups, youth groups, temples, and police stations in each neighborhood   (PDF) ICPSR 4538 Not available

Time 1-3 Land Use Data, Restricted-Use - DS20

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/ Instruments Archive Analysis online
  • Time 1 1996
  • Time 2 2000
  • Time 3 2006
  • Physical measurement
  • Land use survey
  • Professional land survey technician
  • Paper and pencil “Neighborhood Mapping and Land Use Survey”
  • N = 171
  • Response rate = 100%
  • All neighborhoods included in the CVFS Neighborhood History Data
N/A Area within neighborhood of common land, multiple types of agricultural land, and other land uses (e.g. household residences, schools, temples, mills, roads, and waterways)
  • Ghimire and Axinn. 2010
  • Ghimire and Hoelter. 2007
  • Matthews et al. 2000
  • Shivakoti et al. 1999
  • Yabiku. 2006 (“Land Use”)
(PDF) (PDF) ICPSR 4538 Not available

Time 1, 2, and 3 Flora Survey Data, Restricted-Use - DS30

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/ Instruments Archive Analysis online
  • Time 1 1996
  • Time 2 1999
  • Time 3 2006
  • Physical counting and species identification
  • Flora biodiversity survey
  • Professional flora survey technicians
  • Paper and pencil “Common Land Plot Flora Survey” and “Forest Plot Flora Survey”
  • N = 265; 127 forest plots, 138 common land plots
  • Response rate Time 1 = 100%; Time 2 = 97.36%; Time 3= 97.74%
  • Randomly selected 10×10 m2 plots, proportionally distributed in the forest and common lands, sampling frames selected based on the Plot Sampling Method
N/A Plot type, plot location, plant density, species richness, biodiversity
  • Dangol and Lall Maharjan. 2012
  • Dangol. 2009
  • Dangol. 2008 ( “Traditional Uses of Plants”)
  • Dangol. 2007
  • Dangol. 2002 (“Economic Uses”)
  • Dangol. 2002 (“Ethnobotanical research”)
  • Dangol and Shivakoti. 2001 (”Plant Diversity”)
  • Dangol and Shivakoti. 2001 (“Species Composition”)
(PDF) (PDF) ICPSR 4538 Not available

Neighborhood Distances, Restricted-Use - DS31

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/ Instruments Archive Analysis online
1996
  • Trained CVFS field teams recorded locations of neighborhoods, schools, healthposts, bus routes, forest and common land plots during CVFS surveys. Expert geographer generated GIS files using that data, and then calculated the distance from each neighborhood to nearest services
  • Paper and pencil, GPS, Neighborhood History, Healthpost History, School History, Neighborhood Mapping and Land Use Survey, and Flora Surveys (to record locations of services);ArcInfo or Arcview 3.x. (to generate GIS files)
  • N = 171
  • Response rate = 100%
  • All neighborhoods included in CVFS (those included in Neighborhood History datasets)
  • Present (1996) for distance to urban center, nearest school, nearest bus route, and nearest forest plot
  • 1956-1995 (for distance to nearest open health post)
Distance in meters from the south-western-most corner of each neighborhood to the closest school, healthpost, urban center, forest plot, and bus route
  • Brauner-Otto. 2012
  • Brauner-Otto et al. 2007
(PDF) (PDF) ICPSR 4358 Not available

Community Forest, Restricted-Use - DS32

Date of data collection Methods Sample Retrospective reporting period Topics Publications Codebooks Questionnaires/ Instruments Archive Analysis online
2009
  • Face-to-face interview, physical measurement
  • Semi-structured community forest calendar and structured questionnaire used in semi-structured interview, group interview
  • Professional interviewers
  • Paper and pencil “Community Forest Calendar” instrument and accompanying questionnaire
  • N = 21
  • Response rate = 100%
  • All community forests in Western Chitwan
1995-2009 Location, area, and perimeter of community forest areas, forest management systems, human effects on flora species diversity, history of community forest including: establishment history, conservation programs, income, expenditure, resource use patterns, benefit sharing and challenges of conserving the community forest
  • Dangol. 2001. (“A Bibliography of”)
  • Dangol and Shivakoti. 2001 (”Plant Diversity”)
  • Dangol and Shivakoti. 2001 (“Species Composition”)
  • Matthews et al. 2000
(PDF) (PDF) ICPSR 4358 Not available
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